It provides step by step flow of an application to develop the product, the model decides how many phases will be implemented into SDLC.


SDLC means Software Development Life Cycle. It provides a set of steps or Phases to develop a software product.

SDLC Phases are dependent on Software Model.

Software Model:-

The software Model provides a complete step and set of rules for software development and decide the flow of SDLC.

Now, most of the companies use the AGILE Model, V-model, Incremental Model, Rad Model for Software Development.

Type of Model:-

1  Waterfall Model:-

 This model will work from top to bottom approach, it will work step by step means if one step will be completed after that next step will proceed.

The waterfall model follows all PHASES of SDLC.

1.1   Requirement Gathering:-

This phase will collect and analyses requirements of the project based on project modules, components. The business analyst team will work on the requirement gathering phase they will decide, time frame and project budget, a team size of the complete project.

The company create SRS(Software Requirement Specification), BRS(Business Requirement Specification)

FSD (Functional Specification Document) or FRS( Functional Requirement Specification)

 If the requirement phase will be completed then we can switch to the next phase.

 Profile:-    System Analyst, Business Analyst 

1.2   Designing:-

After successfully completing of requirement gathering phase, the design architect team will create a High level and low-level design diagram to describe project specifications, which is easy to understand for the development team and testing team.

The design diagram will be based on UML(Unified Modeling Language) with Use Case, DFD, Class Diagram, and ER diagram, etc.

 Profile:-  UML Architect,Solution Expert

1.3   Development:-

When the Project designing will be completed then the development team will work .they will create program code, database, and User interface of the project according to project technology, platform, and software tools.


Desktop based :-    JAVA,.NET,PYTHON,C,CPP

Web-based:-          PHP,JSP,Servlet,ASP.NET MVC, DJANGO, ROR (Ruby on rails)

Mobile-based:-     Android, iOS, Windows PHONE

Profile:-                 Programmer,UI/UX designer,Database Architect,Database development etc.

1.4   Testing:-

After completion of development, the testing team will cross check project based on the requirement document and provide Test Assurance and Quality of the developed Project.

Profile:-  QA, QE, Software tester, Software testing engineer

1.5  Deployment:-

After completion of testing, the deployment team will deploy the complete application to the client machine.

 Profile:-  Support Team, Developer, DevOps engineer.

1.6  Maintenance:-

After a successful deployment of software, the maintenance team provides help, support, and track bug of existing software Products.

Profile:- Maintenance.

2 Spiral Model:-

This model contains four different phases to perform software testing operationally is the cyclic process because it will develop the application using different project modules and sub-modules when the first module will be completed after that second module planning will be started, it will provide a separate phase for RISK Analyses to monitor project flow.

1 Planning:-

This phase provides partial analyses of project based on particular project modules using related documents, we will plan to develop the first cycle of the project means this model break down the project on the different project development cycle.

most experienced analyses team and business requirement team will work on the planning phase.

2 Risk Analysis:-

This phase checks security lack and proper application flow of developing an application as well as planning. this team will identify the weakness of developed components of an application.

3 Design:-

This phase provides a complete implementation of the application with a design diagram, programming, database analyses, etc.

4 Evaluation:-

This phase provides testing of currently developed applications for a particular module.
The spiral model will work step by step for a particular module not for the complete project hence if any problem occurred in any phase then it will be resolved into next phase.

3 V-Model:-

V means verification and validation model, the testing team will work in the project from the starting phase to the ending phase.

every phase of SDLC verified after that validated then developed .this model provides better accuracy and performance as compared to another model.

Different phases of the V model

1 Requirement gathering, verification & Validation:-

The first collection requirement will be verified by the analysis team and validated by the testing team.

2 System Design & System Testing

The design architect will design a diagram for complete software and it will be tested by the testing team.

3  Architectural Design:-

  It will contain project architecture with all modules. Integration Testing will be used to test architectural design.

4 Modular Design:-  

We will create a separate modules diagram of the Project .unit testing team will be applied to test this phase. 

5 Coding or Programming:-

It will be managed by the development team .they will write a program to implement a project which will be tested by the testing team.

4 Incremental Model:-

It is also called multi waterfall model because we will plan a small module of subsystem similar to waterfall create build (setup) then again increment another module of a software system and append functionality and create build, these steps will be followed with n-terms.


All Phases of the Water Fall Model with multiple-step.

5 Iterative Model:-

This model provides better flexibility to the company and client both, but in the iterative model first, get the requirement of the complete project after that analysis then design then implementation and testing then send the project to client review  .client can modify the requirements again and again until the client is fully satisfied. for a small project, this model is best.

6 RAD Model:-

It is called the Rapid application development model, it provides fast application development as compare to Other Models.

Business Modeling:-  Requirement Gathering with a design using High level and low-level design pattern

Data Modeling:-      DB Analyses of application

Process Modeling:-  Component Information of the project

Application Generation:-  Write Code

Testing & Modeling:-  Testing and Implementation of an  Application

7  Prototype Model::-

Using this model client provides a rough idea to developing a project using PSD(Photoshop design), PPT, or many wireframe software.

The analysis team will provide an actual design using a prototype to view and analyze diagrams to the client and the development team.
This model completely focuses on a prototype of a developing project.

8  AGILE Model:-

It is the modern approach to develop an application, AGILE provides application development based on the sub-module of the project.

project module will be divided into multiple teams, each team has a manager(scrum manager), developer, tester, operations profile, and client.

they will work as a team under submodule of an application

Agile will work on SPRINT means Small planning of the project, if it will be successfully deployed then the next Sub Plan will work.

Every team will be managed by a manager that is called SCRUM Manager.

AGILE provides better client satisfaction because the client can observe development with a team member as a part of a team in the AGILE Method.

AGILE provides less development time and analyses time to develop projects because planning and work will be discussed more efficient way as compared to other models.

Different Phases of AGILE Model:-

1) Planning

2) Development

3) Testing

4) Demo

5) Deployment or Build

Software Testing Live Interview:-

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